Surgical Management of Intrinsic Tumors of the Facial Nerve

Sampath Chandra Prasad, MS, DNB, FEB-ORLHNS; Melissa Laus, MD; Manjunath Dandinarasaiah, MS; Enrico Piccirillo, MD; Alessandra Russo, MD; Abdelkader Taibah, MD; Mario Sanna, MD

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Intrinsic tumors of the facial nerve are a rare entity. Dealing with this subset of tumors is challenging both in terms of decision making and surgical intervention.

OBJECTIVE:
To review the outcomes of surgical management of facial nerve tumors and cable nerve graft interpositioning.

METHODS:
A retrospective analysis was performed at a referral center for skull base pathology. One hundred fifteen patients who were surgically treated for facial nerve tumors were included. In case of nerve interruption during surgery, the cable nerve inter-positioning technique was employed wherein the facial nerve palsy lasted for less than 1-yr duration. In cases of facial nerve palsy lasting for greater than 1 yr, the nerve was restituted by a hypoglossal facial coaptation.

RESULTS:
Various degrees of progressive paralysis were seen in 84 (73%) cases. Sixty nine (60%) of the tumors involved multiple segments of the facial nerve. Sixty-two (53.9%) tumors involved the geniculate ganglion. Seventy four (64.3%) of the cases were schwannomas. Hearing preservation surgeries were performed in 60 (52.1%). Ninety one (79.1%) of the nerves that were sectioned in association with tumor removal were restituted primarily by interposition cable grafting. The mean preoperative House-Brackmann grading of the facial nerve was 3.6. The mean immediate postoperative grading was 5.4, which recovered to a mean of 3.4 at the end of 1 yr.

CONCLUSIONS:
In patients with good facial nerve function (House-Brackmann grade I-II), a wait-and-scan approach is recommended. In cases where the facial nerve has been interrupted during surgery, the cable nerve interpositioning technique is a convenient and well-accepted procedure for immediate restitution of the nerve.